Percentage is lower than cities that will have only men in elections to the local executive (60%). For political scientist, disparities indicate the barriers that women still face to launch candidacies.
In 39 Brazilian cities, voters already know that they will have a woman as mayor next year. Data analyzed by G1 the repository of the Superior Electoral Court (TSE), which is still undergoing s, indicates that these municipalities will have only women as candidates for mayor. It is a very small number, less than 1% of the municipalities, when compared to the total of cities in which only men compete (60%).
Some characteristics call attention in the group of municipalities with only women in the dispute. They are small cities, with a maximum of 45 thousand voters (Camocim-CE) and a minimum of 2 thousand voters (São José do Brejo da Cruz-PB). Most are located in states in the Northeast.
There are municipalities only one woman is running for mayor. If the new candidacy records do not alter the base of the TSE, candidate Larissa (PSD), in the small Lieutenant Ananias, in Rio Grande do Norte, has no political opponent. In Jurema, Piauí, Kaylanne (MDB) will also not need much effort to convince voters, as she runs alone. In fact, her own vote is enough to be elected.
In the evaluation of Flávia Biroli, professor of political science at the University of Brasilia (UNB), a more detailed study is needed to discover why only women are running for election in these cities. She believes that one of the hypotheses is the low interest of the parties in these municipalities or the history of the leadership activity exercised by women in these places.
“It would be necessary to understand if there is a different history in these municipalities that made these women protagonists in the public space and, with that, in the political spaces. The other issue would be to understand the context of party politics in these municipalities. We have two possibilities. One has to do with the first one that I mentioned, that women have a role in public spaces and institutional spaces that ended up allowing them greater control over parties in those cities. The other is the opposite of that. That the parties are not caring about these municipalities and that is left to women, because when the parties care, in general, it is men who have control over political resources ”, observes Flávia.
The disparity in the percentages of cities with only women in the disputes and the case of elections in which only men run for mayor reveal the bottlenecks of Brazilian politics. According to Flávia Biroli, it is not true that women are not interested in politics. The political system is largely controlled by men and this, explains the teacher, creates barriers for women to launch their candidacies.
Another survey published by G1 shows that only 1 in every candidacy for city halls this year is a woman. The low number of candidacies for women is also repeated in the dispute for City Councils. Women represent 34% of the candidates for councilor, a percentage very close to that registered in 2016 and 2012. The mini electoral reform of 2009 established a minimum quota of 30% of the vacancies for women.
“Studies have shown for some decades that the problem of under-representation of women is not a problem that we can attribute to the unwillingness to participate, but to political systems. The problem is not with women, it is with democracies, in the way they reproduce male dominance in politics. There is a data, in the case of Brazil, that is important to mention. Among people affiliated to political parties, women are 46%. That is, it is almost equal in affiliation. If women were not interested in party politics, institutional politics, why would they join the parties? This data shows the interest in party politics. So, there is something that happens between this interest in getting involved and the process of applying and getting elected. That is why quotas are so important because they affect this process. It is no use just being a candidate, you need support, resources, networks, legal support ”, explains the teacher.,